Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) - often abbreviated to angioplasty - is a procedure to re-open a narrowed heart artery by inflating a tiny balloon in the narrowed segments.

Aortic aneurysm repair

An aneurysm is a thickening or bulge in the wall of an artery. In some cases surgical repair of the aorta may be necessary if an aneurysm is present.

Aortic stent grafts

An aneurysm is a thickening or bulge in the wall of an artery. If you have been diagnosed with an aneurysm your consultant may recommend an aortic stent graft (also known as endovascular aneurysm repair or EVAR).

Aortofemoral bypass

An aortofemoral bypass is a procedure to insert artificial tubes (grafts) above blocked iliac arteries and connect the ends of the graft to your femoral arteries.

Cardiac catheterisation (coronary angiogram)

Cardiac catheterisation involves inserting a very thin tube into the right side of your heart.

Cardiac clinical pharmacology

Cardiac clinical pharmacology involves the prescribing and monitoring of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiac conditions.

Cardiac rehabilitation

Following a heart attack or after some surgical procedures your consultant may recommend cardiac rehabilitation.


Cardioversion is procedure that can be used to correct an irregular heartbeat.

Carotid endarterectomy

Sometimes plaque begins to build up on the walls of the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the head and neck.

Coronary Angioplasty (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or PCI)

Coronary angioplasty (or PCI) is a procedure to re-open a narrowed heart artery by inflating a tiny balloon in the narrowed segments.

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

If conservative methods to treat your angina are not successful your consultant may recommend coronary artery bypass graft.

Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy

If you have had heart failure in the past or if you are at risk of heart failure your surgeon may recommend an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy.

Interventional cardiology

Interventional cardiology includes procedures performed on the heart using catheterisation (tiny, flexible tubes).

Left atrial appendage occlusion

Left atrial appendage occlusion aims to prevent blood clot formation in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation.

Mitral valve balloon dilation

During mitral valve balloon dilation a balloon is used to widen the valve opening.


A pacemaker is a special device that treats an irregular or slow heart rhythm.

Peripheral arterial stenting

Peripheral arterial stenting uses a stent to widen an artery.

Peripheral nerve surgery

Unlike your central nervous system, your peripheral nervous system is not protected by bone leaving it exposed to injury or toxins (poisons).

PFO closure

A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a hole between the upper chambers of the heart (atria). This hole is a necessary part of the flow of blood for unborn babies when they are in the womb. The PFO typically closes shortly after birth due to changes in pressure in the heart chambers, but in approximately 25% of people this remains open or can open in certain circumstances allowing a small amount of blood to flow through it.

Thoracoscopic sympathectomy

Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a surgical procedure to correct hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows doctors to see inside the chest and lungs.