There can be several reasons for non-union including lack of stability (holding the broken ends together) or decreased blood flow to the area.

Other factors that can contribute to non-union of a fracture include:

  • Smoking
  • Anemia
  • Diabetes
  • Some medications
  • Infection.

In mal-union of a fracture, your bones have healed but they are not lined up properly. This can cause a shortening or a twist or rotation of the bone. Mal-union can also be caused by lack of stability or trauma to the area during healing.

An x-ray will be necessary to confirm non-union or mal-union of a fracture.