Glucose is an essential source of energy, which is taken up by cells under the influence of a pancreatic hormone called Insulin.

High blood levels of glucose can be caused by one of two factors:

  1. Inability to produce Insulin (Type 1 Diabetes):
    Affects 5-15% of diagnosed Diabetics. The pancreas does not produce any Insulin and glucose is therefore not absorbed by cells and accumulates in the blood. This condition is prevalent in younger people (usually below the age of 40) and cannot be prevented.
  2. Reduced production of  Insulin or tissue resistance to Insulin (Type 2 Diabetes):
    Affects 85-95% of diagnosed Diabetics. The pancreas produces less Insulin than needed or the cells become resistant to the actions of Insulin. This commonly affects older people (40+), but can occur in younger people as well.

Being overweight has been strongly linked to the development of type 2 Diabetics. Pregnancy can cause raised blood sugar levels in certain individuals, which may revert to normal after delivery.

What can put you at risk?

Type 1 Diabetes:
This is where the body destroys its own insulin producing pancreatic cells. This may be due to viral/bacterial infections or exposure to toxins and allergens, but the cause is still uncertain.

Type 2 Diabetes:

  • Obesity - a waist circumference of or more than 80cm for women, 94cm for Caucasian males and 88cm for Asian men
  • Family history of type 2 Diabetes - close relatives (parents or siblings)
  • Increasing age - 40 years or older
  • History of high blood pressure, heart disease or stroke
  • Physical inactivity
  • Ethnicity - People from South Asian, African-Caribbean or Middle Eastern descent have a 5 times increased risk
  • You have been told to have high fasting blood sugar or impaired glucose tolerance
  • Women with a history of gestational diabetes (Diabetes during pregnancy)
  • Overweight women with polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Illnesses such as pancreatitis which damages pancreatic tissue

Why is it important to treat Diabetes?

Persistent high levels of blood sugar can cause irreversible damage to organs including your eyes, heart, kidneys and brain. Long-term damage to the vascular system can restrict peripheral circulation and cause neuropathy (altered sensation due to involvement of peripheral nerves).

Diabetics are also more prone to opportunistic infections such as fungal infections. Maintaining good levels of blood sugar will reduce the risk of developing these complications.

What can I do to manage Diabetes?

The goal of Diabetes management is to reduce levels of blood sugar and to optimise cholesterol and blood pressure levels. You can be proactive in the management of your Diabetics.
If you have been prescribed medication or Insulin injections, it is vital to take it as prescribed. This will limit short and long term complications.

  • Self monitoring and attending regular check-ups at your local Diabetes clinic.
  • Follow a healthy diet – low in sugar, fat and salt and high in fibre. It is important to see a dietician or nutritionist after initial diagnosis for detailed dietary advice.
  • Regular exercise – Aim to do 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise e.g. brisk walking 5 times a week.
  • Weight control.
  • Avoid smoking and alcohol.
  • Maintain a blood pressure below 130/80 and a total cholesterol level below 4mmol/l. This is sometimes only achievable with medication.
  • Attend yearly eye checks and foot examinations. This is provided free of charge through the NHS.
  • Report any concerning symptoms to your Diabetes team

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