When the muscles and ligaments in your vagina become weak, the organs (including your bladder, bowel or uterus) they support may push forward or prolapse.
Bladder prolapse is very common in women who have had multiple pregnancies with vaginal delivery. Women who have had a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may also be at risk. This is because the uterus supports the top of your vagina. Other causes include hormonal changes in menopause, chronic coughing, constipation or previous pelvic surgery.
Treatment for bladder prolapse varies according to severity. Exercises to help strengthen the muscles in your pelvic floor or hormones to maintain these muscles may be prescribed. A device inserted in your vagina to hold your bladder in place (called a pessary) may also be recommended. Avoiding heavy lifting or straining may also be of benefit.
In some cases surgical pelvic floor repair may be necessary.