Cervical smear results explained

Dr Davina Deniszczyc Medical Executive Director, Nuffield Health Dr Davina Deniszczyc joined Nuffield Health as London Clinical Lead GP in 2010 and was quickly promoted to become Professional Head of Physicians, then Wellbeing Medical Director before accepting her current role in 2016. Davina graduated from her medical degree at the University of Manchester in 2003. Her fascination with science and interest in people made her decision to train to become a GP an easy one, and she gained membership to the Royal College of General Practitioners in 2007. More by this author
Cervical smears are a key part of looking after your health, but women can be anxious about the results. Nuffield Health's Medical Executive Director, Dr Davina Deniszczyz, explains the seven types of smear results and what they mean for you.

If you're having a cervical smear, there's probably many things you'd rather be doing but few that are as important to your health. The screen can identify Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cervical cell changes (dyskaryosis) that can increase the risk of cervical cancer. Sometimes there's a need for further tests or a repeat smear but that doesn't mean you should start preparing for the worst.

About 1 in 20 smears note abnormal cell changes and most of these changes won't lead to cervical cancer. But in some cases the abnormal cells will need to be removed so they can't become cancerous. HPV and cell changes aren't tied together. One can be positive, the other negative, or both could be present at various levels. All these outcomes mean different things for you.

The results

Normal smear / negative for high risk HPV

What it means: No abnormal cell changes are noted and there's no evidence of high risk HPV. You have a very low chance of developing cervical cancer, but it's not a guarantee that cervical cancer won't occur.
What you should do: Attend your routine smear in three to five years depending on your age.

Normal smear / positive for high risk HPV

What it means: No abnormal cell changes are noted but there is evidence of high risk HPV.
What you should do: Attend for a follow up smear in 12 months to see if there is change in the cervical cells and whether or not the HPV is gone.

Inadequate

What it means: There are not enough cervical cells present for examination under a microscope. There are many reasons why the sample is inadequate. It's not a reason to be concerned. 
What you should do: Attend for a repeat smear after about three months.

Borderline or low grade dyskaryosis / negative for high risk HPV

What it means: Some abnormal cell changes are noted but there's no evidence of high risk HPV. You're at very low risk of developing cervical cancer before your next next smear. 
What you should do: Attend your routine smear in three to five years depending on your age. 

Borderline or low grade dyskaryosis / positive for high risk HPV

What it means: Some abnormal cell changes are noted and there is evidence of high risk HPV. Further testing is needed.
What you should do: You may be advised to have an examination called a colposcopy. It's similar to a smear and helps to examine the cells in more detail.

Moderate or high grade dyskaryosis / negative for high risk HPV

What it means: Abnormal cell changes are noted but there's no evidence of high risk HPV. Further testing is needed.
What you should do: You will be advised to have a colposcopy.

Moderate or high grade dyskarosis / positive for high risk HPV

What it means: Abnormal cell changes are noted and there is evidence of high risk HPV. Further testing is needed.
What you should do: You will be advised to have a colposcopy.

Remember, being asked to attend for a colposcopy doesn't mean you have or will get cervical cancer. The results will help to determine your next steps. 

Tuesday 15 March 2016

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